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C# (C Sharp)

What is C# (C Sharp):



C# is a platform independent language as like Java (although it is implemented primarily on Windows). And the syntax of C# is similar to C and C++ syntax; it is an object oriented language.


C# is a modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft and
approved by Ecma and ISO.

C# was developed by Anders Hejlsberg and his team during the development of .Net Framework.

C# is designed for Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), which consists of the executable code and run time environment that allows use of various high-level languages to be used on different computer platforms and architectures.

Reasons make C# (why C#):

The following reasons make C# a widely used professional language:
  • Modern, general-purpose programming language
  • Object oriented.
  • Component oriented.
  • Easy to learn.
  • Structured language.
  • It produces efficient programs.
  • It can be compiled on a variety of computer platforms.
  • Part of .Net Framework


C# programs run on .NET Framework, an integral component of Windows that includes a virtual execution system (VES) called the common language runtime (CLR) and a unified set of class libraries.

Execution of C#:

The CLR is the commercial implementation by Microsoft of the common language infrastructure (CLI), an international standard that is the basis for creating execution and development environments in which languages and libraries work together seamlessly.
The code written in C# (Source code) is compiled into a Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) that conforms to the CLI (common language infrastructure) specification. The MSIL code and resources, such as bitmaps and strings, are stored on disk in an executable file called an assembly File, Basically with an extension of .exe or .dll. An assembly has a manifest File that provides information about the assembly version, culture, types, and security requirements.

When the C# program is executed, the assembly is loaded into the CLR (common language runtime), which might take some actions based on the information in the manifest file .Then, if the security requirements are achieved, the CLR performs just in time (JIT) compilation to convert the MSIL code to native( machine instructions) code.
The CLR also provides many other services related to automatic garbage collection, exception handling, and resource management.

Managed code:


Code that is executed by the CLR is sometimes referred to as "managed code," in contrast to "unmanaged code" which is compiled into native machine language that targets a specific system. The following diagram illustrates the compile-time and run-time relationships of C# code files
C# code Execution System

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